Envelopment and Multiple Front Attacks

One of the most effective tactics that can be employed by an attacking force is to launch their attack from several different provinces against the same target. This is for two very important reasons: the defender will suffer an attack and defence effectiveness envelopment modifier; and the attacking leaders may stack their division limits to bring a much larger number of divisions to bear against the enemy.

When a province is attacked across more than one border, the defending forces will receive a 10% envelopment penalty for each extra angle of attack. For example, if you can attack a single enemy province from four different adjacent provinces then that enemy will receive a 30% envelopment penalty to his attack effectiveness and his defence effectiveness. If you have paratrooper divisions then you may also use them for "vertical envelopment', meaning that this airborne invasion is treated as a separate angle "of attack for the purposes of determining an envelopment penalty. Keep in mind, too, that while paratroopers are not nearly as effective in combat as some forces, they are also not subject to any penalties from defensive fortifications. A naval invasion force also counts as an angle of attack, although they are subject to penalties if the province contains coastal fortifications.

The other benefit is that each province's attacking force is handled separately for the purposes of determining ever-stacking. If two generals were to attack from the same province then they would be able to use only one of those general's command ratings and could only attack with nine divisions before incurring an overstacking penally. If those same two generals attacked from two different provinces then they are not considered to be combined so each of them could command nine divisions in the attack, enabling a total force of 18 divisions to participate without penalty.

Be careful though. This doesn't let them stack their ratings to eliminate a penally. For example: if a general with five divisions and major general with two divisions attack from the same province then there would be no overstacking penally applied to the major general's "extra" division because the rating of the overall commander of the attack is used for determining that penally (although neither of the major general's divisions would receive his skill bonus or trait bonuses). If those same two officers attacked from different provinces, then the general is no longer able to take command of the major general's "extra" division. So not only would the major general's two divisions forfeit his skill and trait bonuses, but one of them would also receive the 75% penalty for overstacking.

It is fairly easy to overlook such an error, because the teadership summary at the top of the Combat Details will display the sum of those two commanders' ratings. In the abeve^ example, if the general and major general attack from the same province the summary would indicate that the general is in command and that he has seven divisions with a leadership capability of nine divisions. If they attack from separate provinces, then the general would still be identified as being in command and having seven divisions, but his total command allowance would be listed as ten divisions (his nine, plus the major general's one) so you might not notice that there is actually a situation where one of those divisions is being heavily penalised.

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